The United States signed individual agreements with each of the nations in the Pact, but it did not formally join. : Baghdad Pact and List of state visits made by Kings of … Baghdad Pact    Formally known as the Middle East Treaty Organization, this Cold War, anti-Sovietalliance was created in 1955 with Great Britain, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan as members. Baghdad Pact is similar to these organizations: NATO, Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, Collective Security Treaty Organization and more. Its goal was to contain the Soviet Union (USSR) by having a line of strong states along the USSR's southwestern frontier. This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. Its main purpose was to block possible expansion by the Soviet Union into the Middle East. The Baghdad Pact was renamed CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) in 1959 after Iraq pulled out and Ankara in Turkey became its headquarters. CENTO formally disbanded in 1979. New!! 66-87. Instead, the United States participated as an observer and took part in committee meetings. The Collapse of the Baghdad Pact (1958-59) Conclusion Appendices Bibliography Index. At the height of the Cold War, the Middle East, with strategic bases bordering the Soviet Union, vital communications links, and significant oil wealth, represented a valuable region for Western interests. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), formerly Middle East Treaty Organization, or Baghdad Pact Organization, mutual security organization dating from 1955 to 1979 and composed of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. The Baghdad Pact is an aggressive military organization in the Middle East region represented by the states of Iraq (until March 1959), Turkey, Great Britain, Iran and Pakistan. Following the Iraqi revolution in 1958, the Baghdad pact was renamed CENTO. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pak­istan, Turkey and the United King­dom and dis­solved in 1979. Similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, the main purpose of the Baghdad Pact was to prevent communist incursions and foster peace in the Middle East. CENTO never actually provided its members with a means for guaranteeing collective defense. III, Fasc. This is a list of international trips made by the Kings of Iran in modern days (20th century). The treaty was open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in their region. Iraq, as the original opponent of Arab nationalism, goaded Cairo to stand in the way of the pro-Western alliance. The Council of the Baghdad Pact, meeting on the ministerial level, convened in London on July 28, 1958. For Pakistan, the Pact was intended to balance relations with India and help it benefit from Western economic largesse. Topic. A short introduction to the Baghdad Pact – When Britain and Iran were allies For almost 25 years, the UK led an organisation that included Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan as military allies. Although the United States was still not a member of the organization, it did sign bilateral military aid treaties with Pakistan, Iran and Turkey, ensuring that it would continue to be active in supporting the CENTO members. Yet, despite the shah’s unquestionable sense of Soviet and Communist danger, he saw a unique opportunity in the alliance for the preservation of his throne (Ramazani, 1975, p. 276). By agreeing to this treaty, Turkey improved its relations with Western powers and Iraq strengthened its position vis-à-vis Egypt (Gallman, pp. This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. Iraq’s consequent withdrawal from the Pact, henceforth the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), led to the transfer of the International Secretariat from Baghdad to Ankara, Turkey. When asked if he would press for public statements on Durand Line and Kashmir at upcoming Pact meeting in Tehran, Prime Minister said he felt he must do so. Both Iran and Pakistan became the members of this pact on the basis of their own bilateral strategic relations with US. Answer: In 1955, Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Iran and Pakistan signed a pact known as Baghdad pact. In 1956, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal, an important international waterway. On 24 March 1959, Kassem withdrew Iraq from the alliance and on 19 August 1959, it was announced in Ankara that the name had been changed from the ‘Baghdad Pact’ to the ‘Central Treaty Organisation’, abbreviated as CENTO. In February 1955, Iraq and Turkey signed a "pact of mutual cooperation" in Baghdad to resist outside aggression, and they opened it to other countries in the region as well. Nāṣer opposed the Pact because he perceived it as a threat to his foreign policy objectives and as a tool geared to serve Western political and economic interests. implicitly invited to join, but Israel was excluded. The Pact’s purpose was the “maintenance of peace and security in the Middle East region” (Preamble) and called on member-states to “cooperate for their security and defense” (Article 1) and to “refrain from any interference whatsoever in each other’s internal affairs” (Article 3). Turkey and Pakistan signed an agreement in 1954 to increase security and stability in the region. BAGHDAD PACT (1955) Anti-Soviet security pact sponsored by Britain and the United States.. The Decline of the Baghdad Pact (1956-58) 8. ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Majid Khadduri, Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: A Study of Iraqi Politics, London, 1960, pp. Iran, having abandoned its tradition of third-power policy and having disregarded Prime Minister Moṣaddeq’s experiment with a neutralist approach, wished to align itself with the West. The King of Jordan considered joining, but he could not overcome domestic opposition to the pact. Iran preferred to build strong relations with US at the time and signed this pact neglecting Soviet Union offer to sign fifty years non-aggression pact. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War.It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.. As a result, the other signatories to the Baghdad Pact formed the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO. Pact of Mutual Cooperation Between the Kingdom of Iraq, the Republic of Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Pakistan, and the Kingdom of Iran (Baghdad Pact), February 24, 1955. 24 February 1955: A military agreement was signed between Iraq and Turkey, and the term "Baghdad Pact" started to be used. The idea was to conclude an alliance that would link the southernmost member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Turkey, with the westernmost member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), Pakistan. The Suez crisis of 1956 created a grave challenge to the fledgling Baghdad Pact. Developments in the Middle East in the years that followed weakened the Pact. Each of the four Muslim members of the alliance, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey, faced domestic pressures to withdraw after the United Kingdom joined Israel and France in attacking Egypt. R. K. Ramazani, The Northern Tier: Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, New York, 1966, pp. Cairo also feared that such an alliance would isolate Egypt and strengthen the pro-British regime of Nūrī al-Saʿīd in Baghdad. The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. BAGHDAD PACT, popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. Unlike NATO, CENTO did not have a unified military command structure, nor were many U.S. or UK military bases established … The Council of the Baghdad Pact held its annual meeting in Karachi from June 3 through 6, 1957. In 1958, when United States joined, then it was called as Central Treaty organization. CENTO never created a permanent military command structure or armed forces, but the United States provided assistance to its allies in the region. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), also known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was one of Cold War’s weirdest and ultimately least successful alliances. The Baghdad Pact (1955) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. After the application of the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1958, opposition to the alliance in the Northern Tier emerged among indigenous nationalist groups. The Baghdad Pact formally came into existence in 1955; it was an exemplary Cold War agreement reflecting the priority the Eisenhower administration gave to containment of the Soviet Union through collective security agreements. It determines the aims with which the pact was established; the failings of the pact, and the struggle that was undertaken against it by hostile countries. The outcome of the incident was a profound loss of British prestige in the region, which in turn damaged its position of leadership in the Baghdad Pact. It was difficult to say which Pact countries needed bolstering the most, but there is a critical need of supplying added material benefits to Iraq and Iran. The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. Idem, Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1941-1973: A Study of Foreign Policy in Modernizing Nations, Charlottesville, 1975, pp. The nature of some of the ongoing tensions in the region, like Arab-Israeli conflict and Egyptian-led anti-colonialism, made it difficult to forge an alliance that would include both Israel and Western colonial powers. Mr. Rountree said that we were really trying to prevent the threatened collapse of the Baghdad Pact, which would be a disaster to the free world. Initial attempts to align the emerging states in the area to Britain and the United States having failed (Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 and Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930), London and Washington initiated a sequence of well-known agreements, including the treaty of “friendship and cooperation for security” between Turkey and Pakistan (2 April 1954); the “military assistance” understanding between Iraq and the U.S. (21 April 1954); the Turkish-Iraqi “mutual cooperation pact” (24 February 1955); the special agreement between Iraq and Britain (5 April 1955) which amalgamated the political-military bloc of pro-Western regimes into the Baghdad Pact (Khadduri, pp. 309-24). This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. In the debate on the treaty 4, p. 415. Council The Ministerial Council of the Baghdad Pact held its second session in Teheran from April 16 to 19, 1956. In April, the United Kingdom announced its intention to adhere to the Pact, and it was followed by Pakistan and finally, Iran. This was largely the result of the improbable quintet of nations making up the Organization: Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. In 1979, the Iranian revolution led to the overthrow of the shah and Iran's withdrawal from CENTO. The U.S., having joined the Pact as an Associate member in 1956, exercised great influence in the Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees but received a severe jolt when, in July, 1958, a bloody army revolt overthrew the pro-Western Hashemite monarchy of Fayṣal II, bringing into power the revolutionary Qāsem regime. Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan withdrew in 1979, spelling the end of CENTO. 21-65). This pact, signed in 1955, was a promise by conservative Middle-Eastern nations, like Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, and Pakistan, to remain faithful to the American, non- Communist, camp. A series of events in 1958, including an Egyptian-Syrian union, an Iraqi revolution, and civil unrest in Lebanon threatened regional stability. It was reported that during its two-day meeting, Secretary of State Dulles committed the United States to partnership in the pact with the United Kingdom, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. A mutual security agreement called the Baghdad Pact was signed by Great Britain, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan in 1955. Barring such action by USG to swing neutrals into Pact alignment, Prime Minister wants maximum political, economic and military support for Baghdad Pact members especially emphasizing joint responsibility and cooperation in planning.. The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. The Iraqi premier considered the Pact as a vindication of his source of power and to demonstrate his allegiance to the West broke diplomatic relations with Moscow in January, 1955. It determines the aims with which the pact was established; the failings of the pact, and the struggle that was undertaken against it by hostile countries. Waldemar J. Gallman, Iraq under General Nuri, Baltimore, 1964, pp. 1954 February: Turkey signed a Pact of Mutual Cooperation with Pakistan. It was renamed the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO, in 1959 after Iraq pulled out of the Pact. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, … The Cen­tral Treaty Organisation (CENTO), orig­i­nally known as the Bagh­dad Pact or the Mid­dle East Treaty Organisation (METO), was a mil­i­tary al­liance of the Cold War. The Baghdad Pact: Origins and Political Setting, London, 1956. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. 1959 March: The new republican regime of Iraq withdrew the country from the alliance. Similarly, it was known as the 'Northern Tier' to prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East. The members of the Baghdad Pact except for Iraq endorsed the U.S. intervention, and in 1959, Iraq announced it was formally leaving the arrangement. This article is available in print.Vol. Instead, the U.S shifted its focus to the "Northern Tier," referring to the line of countries that formed a border between the U.S.S.R. and the Middle East. Formed as an alternative to the existing Socialist International, of which many of its member parties are former or current members. External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views or privacy policies contained therein. They felt the US and UK were more interested in the pact as an anti-Soviet alliance than as a way of improving the economy of the region. See more » List of state visits made by Kings of Iran. The pact also provided for a permanent council to be set up when a total of four members belonged.2 Subsequently the Baghdad Pact, as it came to be called, was over-whelmingly accepted by the Iraqi Parliament. “Open for accession to any member of the Arab League or any other slate actively concerned with the security and peace in this region” (Article 5), the American-engineered alliance was intended to satisfy several objectives (Europa, p. 102). By the close of the Eisenhower Administration, it had become clear to CENTO members that that the organization was a better conduit for economic and technical cooperation than it was a military alliance. 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