>> endobj t�5�O�n�(�Te�����m!4「"]�Uͫ���)�e*�j���bW�Ձ��=���c/�]J��ħ]�T��/ݤ��G�*�U���J�R���!RQ�Ń�E�p��$xi�ZiP��$�'}2d^���XԀVW)�Q�n0芊�:��o��l���VnB�GZ�҇�KZ�N���.�1l0 Ҫ������ �lC#���~�4[Nj�%.� h��#�+4�C��h�F�{:�%j���� ��ߡݞ���@#z�#�h����q#-h�S�������`�H��ң1�іq���̶]]%�∲@�Y�m�%u���6-T�oj¡�ᒁ��uTt�5v6P9�rLWY�}9/��Ui�pԘ.���AҨ�F���"R�]�������Q������G�?���OHuxD�N�qa�� ��na��ަ���īc�������J�07�wG��t��}!6�Je��x�-#P=����"x���N�������>>C��� ,a_���C. /Subtype /Form endobj 16 0 obj << 17 0 obj << endobj Among the many types of seismic waves, one can make a broad distinction between body waves, which travel through the Earth, and surface waves, which travel at the Earth's surface. /Resources 49 0 R –No flow through an impervious boundary or body. /Filter /FlateDecode Free surface water wave problem. Both types of body waves are non-dispersive (in purely elastic media). >> Free Surface Water Waves z x y y=h(x,y,t) or F(x,y,z,t) = 0 B(x,y,z,t) = 0 Figure 1. 19 0 obj << /BBox [0.00000000 0.00000000 129.00000000 53.00000000] a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake ____ 65. Seismic Waves is an on-line program which illustrates . /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /PTEX.PageNumber 1 stream %���� x��XYo7~ׯ���,�o � Ҥ�\E�A�����N���~C�r�d iz ��%=3��"9��L�#� From the point of view of the spatial concentration of energy, waves can be divided into body waves and surface waves. The separation parameters d and Id, in time and frequency domain, respectively, have been proposed. /Filter /FlateDecode �~6���dVz�&�Z�Y���� �d�3�݋�W��2��*�19˅��nU>�2-ޓ M:%���6P�[email protected]��N�����[email protected]��e�\�y���ǫ'3���&�f��aZ�a~�|��뗯��2�����ꦭώ2�*:Q���B�y� persion characteristics of surface waves contained in strong motion data. /ExtGState << BY JOHN V. WEHAUSEN and EDMUND V. LAITONE l With 56 Figures. /BBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] /ProcSet [ /PDF ] waves together to the finite fault source study. /FormType 1 10 0 obj << Surfaces wave energy (amplitudes) decay with distance as 1 / r Body wave energy decays as 1 / r2 So at a given distance, which will have more energy ? /Type /XObject It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. x���P(�� ��endstream As a longitudinal compressional waveform, P-waves move in the same way as sound waves. $��獶!����az�s�[?zbr�Ǧ���D�Xރ�A�P���\���Q�,��W ��ɶ;?����$*"b}�Rt�䢌�s����;�����:$o,�HH �������?Gf��eb��E"���eL�6�($K�8k|��[.-n�(�Xn`�.^��ί���-pxs1e)��|��C�d�P�ȱP ����,*��%�1��+�%����뇼��#Y�c�� ���s&"Wd�0\��94B#�O��M63�c�����6V �a��������܁���=!��E�(�rZ��e�.���G�wd� ��Cbv�[email protected]��cK���dh�#��g6��)�du��(�� `�C�dC�x�N�o �^B /Contents 19 0 R Other articles where Body wave is discussed: seismic wave: …elastic waves; two, known as body waves, travel within the Earth, whereas the other two, called surface waves, travel along its surface. Surface waves on the Seismogram Surface waves are the largest amplitude signal on the wave train Surfaces arrive after the P and S waves, because they travel along the surface layers of the Earth where velocities are lower. kinds of body waves, and two kinds of surface waves. Body waves can propagate into the interior of the corresponding medium, whereas surface waves are concentrated along the surface of the medium. /R 22050 12 0 obj << /Resources << >> <> 2001). /Type /XObject On the other hand, surface waves propagate only at the interface between two different media, like the interface between Earth and atmosphere (i.e. earthquake; these are body waves and surface waves. /BBox [0 0 16 16] /Type /XObject Although they move even more slowly than S-waves, they can be much larger in amplitude and are often the most destructive type of seismic wave. As they spread out, they alternately push (compress) and pull (expand) the ground as they move through it. /Subtype /Form waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] stream P-waves are able to travel through both sol… These waves are similar in many important ways to the familiar waves in air generated by a hand-clap or in water generated by a stone thrown into water. Seismic waves fall into two general categories: body waves (P-waves and S-waves), which travel through the interior of the earth, and surface waves, which travel only at the earth’s … 4 0 obj >> 2 0 obj forward and back-scattered surface waves; and (3) body-to-surface scattered waves (Figure 1). P waves are also known as compression waves. >> endobj /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] The rupture initiated slowly at a depth of 23 km. The advantage of this method over others using body waves is that it is very rapid and does not require manual intervention, so that it can be made into an automatic process suitable for real-time purposes. x��}In.Kvޜ�� Because the volumes explored by surface and body waves are signi cantly di erent, the knowledge of As you might imagine, only body waves can give us any information about the deep interior of the Earth. Our preferred model, which based on the MDC fault plane, local JMA hypocenter and calibrated alignments of body and surface waves, revealed a complex rupture process. free surface waves we need to understand the boundary conditions on the free surface, any bodies under the waves, and on the sea floor: –Pressure is constant across the interface –Once a particle on the free surface, it remains there always. /FormType 1 /ProcSet [ /PDF ] endobj /Filter /FlateDecode • Surface waves propagate at a speed lower than body waves and are recorded after the P and S waves. 49 0 obj << /Resources 18 0 R endobj /Type /XObject Two types of surface waves, known as Love waves … t�=�}��`457�G�Q�D /Annots [ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 28 0 R 29 0 R 30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R ] /Matrix [1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000] Surface Waves. {:ľ?�v��XǸ��B�n_�Y�\��nl�5x��0͌�t���tH�+��p�.,�V�djC���[��]�O��W��CV�u� /PTEX.FileName (./figs/anulogo.pdf) moment-tensor inversion using regional surface waves. At the same time viewer can watch waves propagating through a cross-sectional view of the earth. endobj 48 0 obj << Much of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors. specific energy density of surface and body waves in a medium containing a homogeneous distribution of point scatterers. Types. how waves propagate from an earthquake hypocenter to seismic stations across the globe. /Filter /FlateDecode endobj S��W���ut�R�y��"��buXEh�}�촴kF�숟C�F����pGNF��Y���`. LINEAR FREE SURFACE WAVES FALL 2003 °c A.H. TECHET 1. /Subtype /Form >>>> @QW�N�;:r��g�w���V��K#�i�Z��K,z��K쌗��Y�Vr���ܹ��%�$��آ��>�w�:L����fm�M�2��w����r�Gn����8a��jZ'N��&�m��1X��l����S���\��l�H��~���ZR?T� �Y�a /R8 52 0 R A. stream <>>> /Resources 50 0 R /Length 1396 Unlike body waves, surface waves are strongly dispersed in the Earth, having phase and group velocities that depend on frequency. x� endstream Introduction. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 13 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> /ProcSet [ /PDF ] In view of its advantage during the study of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman island earthquake (Ammon et al., 2005), we had developed a quick algorithm to routinely monitor global large earth-quakes by joint inverting body and surface waves. 50 0 obj << %PDF-1.4 then constrained using both broadband body waves and long period seismic waves. x���P(�� ��endstream >> : 48–50: 56–57 Other modes of wave propagation exist than those described in this article; though of comparatively minor importance for earth-borne waves, they are important in the case of asteroseismology. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] stream 1 0 obj This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. endobj �&���Vc`�l)S��[email protected]�,\L\YsE�ڼ�z�����%��x�#��_;_iO���� The rest of the energy, which is most of the energy, is radiated from the focus of the earthquake in the form of seismic waves. Waves propagate out from the epicenter along the surface on a three-dimensional view of the earth. /Length 15 fRi6g���ߤ�!�j J�.O��ʈR�� • Surface waves are larger in amplitude and longer in duration than body waves. Surface waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. /Length 15 x���P(�� ��endstream /PTEX.InfoDict 51 0 R /Subtype /Form /Resources 47 0 R These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves. These oscillations are generated by strong earthquakes. Surface waves are something like the waves in a body of water: They move the surface of the earth up and down & right and left. • Surface waves propagate along a boundary surface. /Resources 48 0 R The various problems of fluid motion treated in this article have in common the property that the fluid is subject to a gravitational force. Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. >> endobj >> Body and surface waves Jascha Roedel, winter semester 2015/16 The term wave describes the spatial propagation of an oscillation or disturbance through a medium such as solid bodies, liquids or gases. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] >> 11 0 obj In our model, the scattering mean free path of body waves is depth dependent as a consequence of the body-to-surface coupling. Surface waves are typically generated when the source of the earthquake is close to the Earth’s surface. Multiscale adjoint waveform tomography for surface and body waves Yanhua O. Yuan 1, Frederik J. Simons , and Ebru Bozdağ2 ABSTRACT We have developed a wavelet-multiscale adjoint scheme for the elastic full-waveform inversion of seismic data, including body waves (BWs) and surface waves (SWs). endobj /Filter /FlateDecode /BBox [0 0 8 8] /Filter /FlateDecode A general /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [0 0.0 0 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> 3 ) body-to-surface scattered waves ( Figure 1 ) in common the property that the fluid subject! And are recorded after the P wave can move through it slowly at a speed than! 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