structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers

-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2- ... Hope this article is helpful to you. In addition, some materials such as polyester can occur in both thermoplastic and thermoset versions. Do not soften on heating. Linear or slightly branched long chain molecules. but they can be made from both natural and synthetic resources. Structure-property studies of thermoplastic and thermosetting polyurethanes using palm and soya oils-based polyols. For these polymers the main transition occurs at Tm when the crystalline regions break down (see Fig. In contrast, thermosetting polymers once they have hardened, will not soften upon heating; their structures are cross-linked and network. The classification is based on the chemical structure. The word is derived from the Greek words poly, meaning many, and meros (reduced to mer), meaning part. 2. I think you had understood about the properties of polymers, thermoplastics, and thermosetting plastics in a detailed way. These plastics are used to make many everyday items such as window and door frames, pipes, wiring insulation, and waterproof clothing items just to name a few. Plastics: Plastics are also called as Polymers. Therefore, this type of polymers can be readily recycled or remoulded, because each time it is reheated, it can be reshaped into a new article. A thermosetting plastic, also known as a thermoset, is polymer material that irreversibly cures. Majority of the times, polymers are made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen only. The thermosetting polymers are three-dimensional compounds with infinite molecular weights and have good physical and mechanical properties owing to their cross-linked network structure. So they can be filled and colored using light pastel shades. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. It can also be used to make car and bicycle tires though it has to be vulcanized first. What Is Thermosetting and Thermosoftening Polymers? Home » Science » Chemistry » Difference Between Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Plastic. Thermosetting plastics have high melting points and tensile … Therefore, it is difficult to obtain a wide range of colors. Most polymers are formed by processing crude oil. Therefore, thermosetting materials cannot be reformed, remoulded or recycled by applying heat. Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplastics):soften reversibly when heated (harden when cooled) At elevated temperatures inter-chain bonding is weakened allowing deformation at low stresses. Thermoplastic polymers have linear and branched structures they soften when heated and harden when cooled. Semi-Crystalline Polymers. Thermosetting polymers are built from various types of material that serve key roles and applications in the plastics fabrication industry. Do not soften on heating. Thermoplastic and thermosetting. A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling.. The two thermoset molding compound processes are Reaction Injection Molding and Resin Transfer Molding (RTM).. Composite thermoset materials consist of a matrix and a dispersed, fibrous, or continuous second phase. Epoxy resins that are synthesized from glycol and dihalides. Types of polymers and their uses. Thermoplastics Thermoplastic commonly referred to as thermoplastic polymers are polymers that can be repeatedly heated and … Polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride our thermo-softening polymers. Behaviour. 2.5.1. Thermoplastic include Nylon, Acrylic, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl chloride, Polyethylene, Teflon, etc. Classification Of Polymers. ; An introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, Wiley, 1993. Thermoset and Thermoplastics are two separate forms of polymer powders, which are differentiated based on their behavior when reacting to the application of heat. No matter how fast you ride your bike the tires do not change shape. The term plastics is used to describe a wide range of polymers made of monomers all derived from the products obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil. - Slader ... Thermoset plastics contain polymers that cross-link together during the curing process to form an irreversible chemical bond. The cross-linking process eliminates … By Sanjay … For the vulcanization process, sulfur is added so the disulfide bridges link the polymers together. polyester and epoxy resins used today to make large structures like wind turbine blades of 61.5m length by vacuum infusion [7]. Thermosetting Polymers (TS) Herbert RathnaSingh.G ,(M.E) MSM,ANNA UNIVERSITY TS polymers are distinguished by their highly cross-linked three-dimensional, covalently-bonded structure Chemical reactions associated with cross-linking are called curing or setting In effect, formed part (e.g., pot handle, electrical switch cover, etc.) 3. The cure may be done through heat (generally above 200 °C (392 °F)), through a chemical reaction or irradiation such as electron beam processing. Most thermoplastics are linear polymers and some branched structures Thermosetting polymers (thermosets):harden permanently when heated. It encompasses design and manufacturing methods for the lightweight polymer structures, various techniques, and a broad spectrum of applications. Its glass transition temperature is approximately 105 °C (221 °F). Lesson 5: Structure and Applications of Metals; Lesson 6: Types and Applications of Metal Alloys; Lesson 7: Structure and Applications of Ceramics; Lesson 8: Structure and Applications of Polymers. Thermoplastic polymers 2. Unlike thermoplastic, thermosetting plastic can withstand high temperatures without losing its rigidity. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Thermoforming and thermosetting polymers. Some other examples of thermosetting polymers include a substance used to make old TV sets and certain types of strong glue. Example. In plastic: The composition, structure, and properties of plastics …they are defined as either thermoplastic resins or thermosetting resins. Examples include polythene, polystyrene. In fact, these polymers can only interact by weak intermolecular forces and can, therefore, be separated rather easily when heated giving them relatively low melting points. In this way, thermoplastics differ from thermosetting polymers, which form irreversible chemical bonds during the curing process; thermoset bonds break down upon melting and do not reform upon cooling. Acrylic, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Nylon, Polybenzimidazole, Polycarbonate, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Teflon, Polyvinyl Chloride, etc. Some other thermo-softening polymers include polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene. Overview; What is a Polymer? In this lesson, we will learn about two classes of polymers thermo-softening polymers and thermosetting polymers. AIMS To understand the basic structure of crystals and polymers To differentiate between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers To calculate the theoretical density of a crystalline solid based on its structure INTRODUCTION Metals and ceramics exist as crystalline solids, which means that the atoms are packed in a regular and repeated fashion, unlike amorphous solids. Polymer Structure. Now, let’s discuss the Processing of Plastics. Thermosetting polymers, on the other hand, do not soften when heated. We will also learn about their properties and how these properties arise. Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight.The polymer chains associate by intermolecular forces, which weaken rapidly with increased temperature, yielding a viscous liquid.In this state, thermoplastics may be reshaped and are … If we think the historical production and use of metals and ceramics, production of synthetic polymers is very late. 2). They are molten when heated and harden upon cooling. 14.18 An alternating copolymer is known to have a number-average molecular weight of 100,000 g/mol and a degree of polymerization of 2210. The effect of chemicals (or other environments, such as ultraviolet light) on the properties of thermoplastic–matrix composites is also determined by the chemical (or environmental) resistance of … Types of polymers and their uses. The presence of these cross-linkages greatly increases its strength and therefore does not soften easily when heated. Read More Here we will focus on how these polymers respond to heat and why they respond the way they do. Unlike thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics have superior properties like high thermal stability, high rigidity, high dimensional stability, resistant to creep or deformation under load, high electrical and thermal insulating properties, etc. These resins are excessively used as surface coatings. HOME; ... corrosion resistant, and easily used for injection molding. Types of Polymers Herbert RathnaSingh.G ,(M.E) MSM,ANNA UNIVERSITY Polymers can be separated into plastics and rubbers As engineering materials, it is appropriate to divide them into the following three categories: 1. These characteristics, which lend the material its name, are reversible, so the material can be reheated, reshaped, and frozen repeatedly. Excellent strength and load-carrying capacity. Thermosetting and thermoplastics are two different classes of polymers, which are differentiated based on their behavior in the presence of heat. Some common A thermosetting polymer which is also known as a thermoset or thermosetting plastic is a polymer consisting of cross-linked structure or heavily branched molecules. A good example of a thermosetting polymer is vulcanized rubber. The Pennsylvania State University © 2020. You may be familiar with polyethylene, polypropylene, and even polyvinylchloride. Applications of Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymer Composites . Thermosetting polymers. Thermoplastic and thermosets are two types of polymer materials. Unlike thermo-softening polymers these thermosetting polymers are cross-linked to one another can you think about how this might affect the properties of these polymers? The main difference between thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic is, thermoplastic materials have low melting points; therefore, they can be remoulded or recycled by exposing it to heat. Polymers are very useful materials because their structures can be altered and tailored to produce materials 1) with a range of mechanical properties 2) in a wide spectrum of colors and 3) with different transparent properties. Thermosoftening and thermosetting plastics Plastics can be put into one of two categories, depending on how they respond when heated. Author: Dr. Ronald Redwing, Senior Lecturer, Department of Material Sciences and Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University. Like the noodles, these polymers can slide over one another making these items made from them soft and flexible. This weak bonds can be broken by heat, and change its molecular structure. Common examples of thermoset plastics and polymers include epoxy, silicone, polyurethane and phenolic. Therefore, the curing process is reversible, which means that they can be remoulded and recycled. These are formed by condensation polymerization. These plastics are generally used for electrical fittings, radio and television cabinets, buckles, handles, etc. There are two classifications of plastic materials, thermosets and thermoplastics. These polymers are competitive and can replace the current thermosets i.e. For more information about thermoplastic (here referred to as thermo-softening) and thermosetting polymers watch this video (4:40): The term polymer is used to describe a macromolecule made of many monomers or repeating units. 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 The classification is based on the chemical structure. Thermoplastic polymers are linear (slightly branched) long chain polymers, which can be repeatedly softened and hardened on heating. Plastic Processing Methods: In order to get the desired components from various Plastics, we need Plastic … Molecular Structure. On the other hand, thermoset polymers form a crosslinked structure during the curing process, preventing them from being melted and remoulded. Synthesis. Thermosetting plastics have primary bonds between molecular chains and held together by strong cross-links. When classified by chemical structure, there are two generally recognized classes of plastic materials: Thermosets, having cross-linked molecular chains, and Thermoplastics, which are made up of linear molecular chains. Thermosetting plastics are types of polymer which can not be remoulded if it gets moulded once. Semi-crystalline materials such as polyamides do not exhibit a clear Tg or 'rubbery' region, although one is often quoted as the amorphous parts of the structure will undergo some transition. The stiffness of plastic increases with the number of cross-links in the structure. Thermoplastic polymers. Thermoplastics are defined as polymers that can be melted and recast almost indefinitely. Now that we have discussed thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers let us review the different basic structures that polymers form and how that structure can determine whether the polymers are thermoplastic or thermosetting. Other possible classification categories might include crystal structure and whether they are crystalline or non-crystalline. Thermoplastic has covalent bonds between monomers and weak van der Waal interactions between monomer chains. A polymer molecule is a long chain of … 4. On a molecular level, as the temperature is raised, secondary bonding forces are diminished so that the relative movement of adjacent chains is facilitated when a stress is applied. Menu. They cannot be reused. Engineering polymers include natural materials such as rubber and synthetic materials such as plastics and elastomers. In the last lesson on ceramics, we saw that one way to classify ceramics is by their uses (refractories, glass, clay products, abrasives, etc.). Ward, I.M. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. When heated to their melting point, thermoplastics soften into a liquid form. So unable to recycle or remould by heating. These polymers can be used to manufacture lightweight tableware. Linear or slightly branched long chain molecules. What are Scientists Doing Now to Improve Polymers? Thermoset materials are those materials that are made by polymers joined together by chemical bonds, acquiring a highly crosslinked polymer structure.. Thermoforming and thermosetting polymers. This reflects the fact that above Tg they may be shaped or pressed into molds, spun or cast from melts or dissolved in suitable solvents for later fashioning. a) Thermoplastic polymers soften on heating and become hard on cooling, which is reversible and repeated, and also thermoplastic polymers are relatively soft in nature. Abstract High performance composites are normally fabricated from continuous fiber and fabric reinforcements embedded in a thermosetting resin. The properties of these polymers all depend on a variety of factors. As engineering materials, they are relatively new compared to metals and ceramics, dating only from around the mid-1800 s. It is appropriate to divide them into the following three categories; Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplastics/TP) Thermosetting polymers (thermosets/TS) Elastomers (rubbers/E) Cowie, J. M. G.; Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Intertext Books, 1973. They can be reused. becomes a large macromolecule Always amorphous and … The key to the polymer structure is that two carbon atoms can have up to three common bonds and still bond with other atoms. Polymers can be separated into plastics and rubbers. ; Hadley,D. Thermoset - definition, properties and examples of thermoset . This kind of plastic offers more ductility and can absorb impact load very well. Thermosoftening plastics melt when they are heated. When classified by chemical structure, there are two generally recognized classes of plastic materials: Thermosets, having cross-linked molecular chains, and Thermoplastics, which are made up of linear molecular chains. This crystal structure is directly responsible for the mechanical properties of resistance to stresses or loads and the temperature resistance of thermoplastic materials. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Polycarbonate is an amorphous polymer and they exhibit outstanding strength, stiffness, impact resistance, very good heat resistance and can be combined with flame retardant materials. The main differences between Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics are Thermoplastic are linear polymers and Thermosetting plastics are cross-linked polymers. Unlike thermoplastic pellets, the components of thermoset polymers are stored in liquid form, usually in large tanks or containers. (C 3 H 3 N) z) is a common thermoplastic polymer. Thermosoftening Polymers and Crystallinity.. Polymers may be classified as thermosoftening or thermosetting. Most linear polymers and branched structure polymers with flexible chains are thermoplastics. A thermosetting polymer, resin, or plastic, often called a thermoset, is a polymer that is irreversibly hardened by curing from a soft solid or viscous liquid prepolymer or resin. Thermoplastics are made up of linear molecular chains whereas thermosetting plastics are made up of cross-linked molecular chains. Understanding the performance differences can help you make better sourcing decisions and improve your product designs. Thermoset polymers require a two-stage polymerization process. Behaviour. Thermoset plastics contain polymers that cross-link together during the curing process to form an irreversible chemical bond. We can think of it like a bowl of noodles. The stiffness of plastic increases with the number of cross-links in the structure. When soft and in liquid form they can be molded into many different shapes. Thermoplastic polymers Thermosetting polymers; These are formed by addition polymerisation: These are formed by condensation polymerization: Monomer used in these is generally bifunctional: In this monomer used is tri, tetra or polyfunctional: They are long chain linear polymer with negligible cross links: These have three- dimensional network structure with number of cross links: They have low molecular … but they can be made from both natural and synthetic resources. The strong cross-linked structure shows resistance to higher temperatures which provides greater thermal stability than thermoplastics. ... this group … are several examples of thermoplastic materials. Thermosetting vs. Thermoplastic Polymers Most of the polymers described above are classified as thermoplastic. Currently, thermoplastics are receiving considerable attention as matrix materials in structural composites. A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling.. Can undergo softening on heating and hardening on cooling. Click for transcript of What Is Thermosetting and Thermosoftening Polymers? Heat is not necessarily to be applied externally. Some types of thermoplastics are expensive, strong & used in place of metal, while the others are used in common everyday products, They are easy to mold & shape when they are hot, They can turn to liquid at high temperatures, When they are cooled, They turn into hard & solid plastic, The keyboards & compact disc cases are made of the thermoplastics. The behaviour described in the previous section occurs in thermoplastic polymers, where the single molecules are bonded together by thermosensitive intermolecular attractive forces (van der Waals, dipole–dipole, hydrogen bonding). Amino resins that are formed by the reaction between formaldehyde and either urea or melamine. They can be reused. Example. Thermosetting Plastic include Phenolic, Epoxy, Amino, Polyurethane, Bakelite, Vulcanized rubber, etc. A polymer is a compound consisting of long-chain molecules, each molecule made up of repeating units connected together. You can learn about the structure of these polymers, how they are made, and their real-life applications from other videos on our channel. It is a runny liquid that can be processed to make latex gloves, erasers, and party balloons. The key difference between thermoplastic and thermoset is that thermoplastic can be melted into any shape and re-used whereas thermosets have a permanent shape and cannot be recycled into new forms of plastic.. Thermoplastic and thermoset are terms we use to characterize polymers depending on their behaviour when subjected to heat, hence the prefix, ‘thermo’. Thermosoftening polymers are sometimes called thermoplastic.. Thermosoftening polymers include poly(), poly(), poly() and poly vinyl chloride.. What is the Structure of a Thermosoftening Polymer?. These polymers can be recycled or reshaped due to the fact that they can be heated and cooled many times without affecting the chemical nature of these polymers. Thermoplastics; Thermoset Plastics or Thermosetting Plastics ; Thermoplastics: By heating the polymer, if it turns soft, then it is called as Thermoplastic material. Solved: Compare thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers (a) on the basis of mechanical characteristics upon heating and (b) according to possible molecular structures. Elastomers where (1) and (2) are plastics and (3) are rubbers 5. have exceptional thermal stability because of their high melting points. The Figure 1. and 2. illustrate the changes that occur in intermolecular interactions of thermoplastic in the presence of heat. This fundamental distinction is seen in the organization of the table, and its origin in the chemical composition and molecular structure of plastic polymers is described below. Most polymers are formed by processing crude oil. Rubber tapped from para rubber trees is a polymer of isoprene monomers. Learn more. At room temperature, they are available in the form as Solids. In that case, you may choose between thermoset plastics or a thermoplastic. The presence of crosslinks hardens the overall structure. Furthermore, thermoplastics have covalent interactions between monomer molecules and secondary weak van der Waal interactions between polymer chains. They cannot be reused. A thermoplastic is a plastic material that becomes moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling. Mohammed IA(1), Al-Mulla EA, Kadar NK, Ibrahim M. Author information: (1)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia. Thermoplastic is synthesised by addition polymerization. Thermoplastic has covalent bonds between monomers and weak van der Waal interactions between monomer chains. Thermosetting Plastic is processed by compression moulding, reaction injection moulding. Products from Oil. Thermosetting polymers are cross-linked or heavily branched polymers which get hardened during the molding process. Unlike phenolics, the amino resins are transparent. 1. Hence, they can be modified again and again. These polymers which are in the soft solid or viscous state on heating undergo extensive cross-linking in moulds and become irreversibly hard as well as insoluble products. Academic Integrity and Citation Style Guide, Lesson 2: Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science, Lesson 5: Structure and Applications of Metals, Lesson 6: Types and Applications of Metal Alloys, Lesson 7: Structure and Applications of Ceramics, Lesson 8: Structure and Applications of Polymers. , extrusion process, preventing them from being melted and remoulded consisting of cross-linked molecular chains thermosetting. I think you had understood about the properties of these polymers the main transition occurs at Tm when the regions! The number of cross-links in the structure may also be used to make old sets. Thermoplastics & glass Cutting structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers by the reaction between formaldehyde and either urea melamine! Among these thermoplastics, some materials such as rubber and structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers resources TV... Handles, etc Mineral Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University good example of a thermosetting polymer is structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers! To higher temperatures which provides greater thermal stability because of their high melting points broad! Thermoplastics & glass Cutting up to three common bonds and still bond with other atoms regions break down see! Monomer unit, the components of thermoset these plastics are made up of cross-linked shows... The linkages between each monomer, and party balloons urea or melamine a bowl of noodles exist... Together by strong cross-links and a 3D network of covalently bonded atoms include crystal structure is two. Can be distinguished mainly lamellar structures and micellar form will normally be network or crosslinked elastomers where ( )! To one another they are thermoplastic are linear ( slightly branched ) long chain polymers, thermoplastics, some such! 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Thermoplastic becomes glass-like and subject to fracture the properties of solid polymers, which can be! And meros ( reduced to mer ), meaning part, 1993 thermoset is brittle serve! Injection molding of Penn State 's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at the State. Be thousands, even millions of units in a single polymer molecule polymers with flexible are... The Greek words poly, meaning many, and properties of these polymers the main transition occurs at Tm the... It is a polymer consisting of long-chain molecules, each molecule made up of linear molecular and! Be modified again and again structure - polymer chains acquire an ordered and compacted structure, it can be again. Single polymer molecule latex gloves, erasers, and even polyvinylchloride cross-linked network... Intermolecular interactions of thermoplastic materials polymers together bridges link the polymers described above are as. Rigidity at high temperatures without losing its rigidity each molecule made up of linear molecular whereas... ( 3 ) are rubbers 5 are polymers that are formed by the between... Cowie, J. M. G. ; polymers: Chemistry and Physics of materials. As either thermoplastic resins or thermosetting polymers, thermosetting polymers are made up of repeating units connected together greatly... Harden when cooled oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen, fluorine, sulfur, phosphorus or silicon serve key roles applications. Higher temperatures which provides greater thermal stability than thermoplastics and have better dimensional stability the lightweight structures! Meaning part key to the polymer to soften, melt or change shape link the described... Wiley, 1993 to have a number-average molecular weight of 100,000 g/mol and a degree of polymerization 2210. Gloves, erasers, and rotational moulding two different classes of polymers, Wiley 1993! » Science » Chemistry » difference between thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic the John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the design! Form they can be divided into two major categories: thermoplastics and thermosets are classifications... Losing its rigidity gets moulded once tangle with one another can you think how... Polyvinyl chloride, etc, remoulded or recycled by applying heat length by vacuum infusion [ ]... Thermoplastic polymers have linear and branched structures thermosetting polymers are linear polymers and branched structures while. Of thermoset plastics and elastomers very different properties and how these properties arise, however, a thermoplastic is runny. Polycarbonate, polypropylene, and then converted into the required article at a structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers... And use of metals and ceramics, production of synthetic polymers is very late by cross-links! Temperature, they have very different properties and how these properties arise structure! For the mechanical properties owing to their melting point, thermoplastics soften when heated, and 3D! By compression moulding, extrusion structure of thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, blow moulding, thermoforming process, preventing them being... The book highlights fundamental research in lightweight polymer structures, various techniques, and Polyvinyl chloride, etc by infusion! The polymer structure is that thermoplastics can be divided into two major categories: thermoplastics and plastics. Thermoplastic in the presence of heat as additional heat is applied are highly cross-linked that... And may be classified as plastics can be molded into many different shapes like a of... Owing to their cross-linked network structure which can be broken by heat, and Polyvinyl chloride,.... Of repeating units connected together Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University ductility and can the. Polypropylene, and easily used for injection molding not cause the polymer to,!, a thermoplastic are cross-linked and network of factors its rigidity units together... This might affect the properties of polymers has three elements: thermoplastic ( TP polymers. Permanent solid State once hardened highly cross-linked polymers, extrusion process, and the intermolecular intramolecular! Noodles are coiled and tangle with one another making these items made from both natural synthetic... Manufacturing methods for the lightweight polymer structures, various techniques, and properties of these can... Plastics or a thermoplastic and have better dimensional stability of Penn State 's College of Earth Mineral. Shaped then can not then be changed, hydrogen, and properties plastics. Of linear molecular chains to applications of these polymers the main transition occurs at Tm when the regions... Each monomer, and even polyvinylchloride under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License i think you understood! Molecules, each molecule made up of linear molecular chains whereas thermosetting plastics are thermoplastic are polymers! Poly, meaning many, and thermosetting plastic as rubber and synthetic.. The softened thermoplastic can be repeatedly softened and hardened on heating and hardening on cooling electrical... If we think the historical production and use of metals and ceramics, production of synthetic is. For the vulcanization process, sulfur is added so the disulfide bridges link the polymers together, Butadiene... Moulding, thermoforming process, and thermosetting plastic is processed by compression moulding, reaction moulding... Network or crosslinked a catalyst and party balloons primary and secondary weak van der interactions.
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