Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. Planting trees just outside the fence around the pasture boundary is usually adequate. Agroforestry Systems 2, 131-163. It is a hardy plant that can easily shoot up to 20 feet in a single growing season. Low rainfall areas with annual, irregular rainfall of less than 200 millimetres per year can grow some of the chenopods, or carobs, which will yield several tonnes of dry matter per hectare every year. harvested and fed to livestock Or, perhaps it will convince even more graziers that, in the years following the current drought, and the next, and the next, that really, after such bad conditions on the land, there is no money to invest in this form of fodder. Needs reasonable soils. If a farm has a number of livestock enterprises, pastures should match the predominant enterprise or a mix of pastures used that is suitable for all enterprises. Yields of 50 tonnes per hectare per year after five years have been reported (Lamb 1979). There are just under 15 million sheep located primarily in the agricultural region, producing high quality meat and wool for world markets. Production from some, such as leucaena can be less than a year, that of tagasaste, two or three years, and others around the same time. Point Lonsdale Pier, Victoria. will depend on the needs and objectives of the individual. For best harvesting, you'd probably need to mow fairly short underneath the trees just before nut drop. McLeod, C.C. planting millions of trees across the developing world since 1989. Dr Brian Lowry, principle research scientist It is a desert covered with a salt crust up to one metre thick. Council on Tree and Nut Crops Inc. Lismore, NSW, Australia. 1979, 'Uses and Potential Uses of Leguminous Trees for Minimal Energy Input Agriculture', Economic Botany 33(2) 172-182. Spedding, C.R.W., Walsingham, J.M. Agroforestry is the use of trees that give high feed yields all year round, every year, even where grasses cannot grow. digestible or nutritious to meet all of an animals' needs in isolation. A good choice is the Viburnum tinus, a small leaf evergreen that grows to about 3.5 metres. Root systems and high-N litter can help improve soil structure adversely affect digestibility of dry matter. There is a small movement in Australia interested in the use of trees for fodder. Best of all, you can enjoy this spectacle no matter where you live, because there are varieties suitable for tropical, temperate, or cooler areas. The potential of some of the semi-arid regions could match the productivity of many more fertile, moister land. CSIRO Div forestry Canberra ACT. Edible species of trees and shrubs will make the difference between survival and disaster, for the farm, the farmer, the farming community and the economy of the country. Evergreen tree; fast growing under most conditions, reaches its full potential in three to four years. Grazing lands in most parts of the world have suffered in a similar way. Propagated from seed or from cutting. Did Plato get it wrong? which Lowry has identified with potential for this dual purpose Schmidt, C., Stirzaker, R. and Thorburn, P. (1997). Marcar, N. (Ed) (1995). These are five fast growing trees to consider. Tree Care Extension Officers (1996). Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. Rainfall can be as little as 120 millimetres of winter fall per year, yet production there can be as high as several tonnes of dry matter per hectare. One which is valued is the acacia, Some countries have been using trees for livestock for centuries. Many require intermittent periods of heavy grazing followed are often inaccessible to grazing animals, and increased labour Long-lived species - expected life of about 50 years. This tree needs a sunny, protected position and well-drained, rich soil. Many contain tannins and other astringent compounds, which So why shouldn't countries like Australia make those barren soils productive within only a few years. Propagation is by grafting or from stratified seed. Some species in dry or marginal areas may need a little irrigation only until they are established; provide yields of edible components comparable to pastures: most trees and shrubs suitable for fodder have yields reported to be several times higher than pastures grown in comparable areas; have the ability to fix nitrogen to reduce the dependence on artificial fertilisers: most legumes, such as tagasaste, and some other species such as casuarinas, fix atmospheric nitrogen by use of bacteria and convert it into nitrates that the plants can use, removing all dependence on nitrogenous fertilisers; have a high protein content in their edible portions: as many of the trees and shrubs suitable for fodder are legumes, the protein content will be high - often around 20 to 25 percent, comparable to lucerne; provide their feed in a short time: the possible yields from fodder trees and shrubs could be three, or five or more times the yield per year than from pastures. Slow growing, producing pods in 5-8 years; long-lived, about 100 years. And why shouldn't we provide a plentiful supply of fresh, highly nutritious and palatable feed for the animals, to take some of the burden out of farming? particular feed shortage and the agroecological zone. Their foliage also generally has to hear about such failures or entertain any communication about updating of quality of feed available? The high protein content of its foliage is excellent for animal fodder and at the same time improving soil fertility. Some contain toxic substances or thorns that make management 2.1. These trees are naturally symmetrical and are best left to develop naturally, untrimmed. They can tolerate dry periods. Since Biblical times, the carob has been recognised as a source of food, mainly for humans, but it is well recognised in parts of the world as a source of fodder for animals. The feed yield from fodder trees - even grown under adverse conditions and in poor soils - can match, and often exceed, that from pastures grown under good conditions (Lamb 1979). fodder is accentuated in harsh environments, where limitations Drought tolerant and frost resistant. On maturity, the trees provide six or seven tonnes of high protein pods per hectare in a year (Felker 1981). Acacias, being legumes, are able to convert, by means of rhizobium bacteria, atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrates. Varieties of Leucaena have been developed that do not contain the previously high levels of mimosine, a depilatory when fed in excess to cattle. difficult. Typical feed problems can be managed with fodder Recovers rapidly from complete defoliation or heavy grazing. Khosla, P.K., Puri, S. and Khurana, D.K., eds. principles for farm forestry : a guide to assist farmers to decide Nair, P.K.R. It is also very wise to choose species that are well adapted to the climatic conditions that prevail in your garden. And have farmers forgotten their predecessors who, during times of drought, relied on the foliage from the cut branches of the introduced weeping willows growing along river banks to feed their stock? Fodder trees are less affected Fodder trees take from two or three years to about seven or eight years before they will provide sufficient high protein pods, seeds or foliage. adversely affect the digestibility of dry matter and utilization Unlike pastures, there are few limits for growing at least some species of trees or shrubs for fodder. (1986). How many grasses (apart from those native grasses that grow only after heavy rains) prefer depleted, impoverished, deficient soils? They can tolerate dry periods. It grows on rocky or stony outcrops, or clefts of rocks where no grasses could ever get a hold (Duke 1981). Australia, it has sometimes been claimed, has an efficient agricultural system. shrubs can be summed up as : Clearly, though a highly valuable resource as (1997). In Certified temperate pasture seed (seed produced and processed to meet quality scheme requirements) contributes to the productivity of pasture based livestock … they often have lower energy value than herbaceous plants due Sept 1995, http://www.uq.edu.au/~gagkrego/acotanc/papers/champion.htm, [ANU Forest Are large profits made from the land? Can be grazed within their first two or three years (Batten 1985). Propagated from seeds or from suckers. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dr Brian Lowry, principle research scientist with CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, has identified a number of Australian and exotic tree species whose leaves, pods and flowers could provide fodder to sustain livestock through the dry season and extended droughts experienced in northern Australia. Although there may be wild claims about the potential and yields from some fodder trees (Oates and Clarke 1987), there is no doubt that, because trees are deep rooting compared with grasses, they will tap minerals and water deep in the soil. They grow best in clumps of several trees and can be used as ornaments by themselves, but function optimally as part of a woodland garden. detrimental factors that reduce the utilization of protein not in Australia. Under these circumstances the value of trees and shrubs is considerable Drought resistant, these grow in low rainfall areas, although an even rainfall of 100 mm per month provides best growth. the fodder shortage occur at a certain time of the year? Fodder trees can improve the output from existing properties and make them viable once again. The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development supports the economic success of several livestock industries, in particular the beef, sheep, dairy and pork industries. (Formerly Birdwood Nursery) 71 - 83 Blackall Range Rd Woombye QLD 4559. Valuable in soil stabilisation work (Duke 1981; Felker & Bandurski 1979). The cost of planting seedlings too is high. this species can lead to shedding of hair coat of animals, excessive Honey locust: Gleditsia triacanthos: Grown for high yield of pods. glands and death of newborn animals (Gogate and Dhaundiyal 1984, Table 2. Foliage contains about 23% protein (Davies 1982; Davies 1985; Rumball & Cooper 1985). Table 1. Their deep-rooted habit can be used to stabilise land against Lamb, R. 1979, World Without Trees, Magnum Books, London. Holes about a metre or so across, and a couple of metres deep, are excavated through the salt crust for the trees. Pods are consumed - seeds contain 21% protein; yield can be 400 kgs per tree or 50 tonnes of pods per hectare per year (Douglas & Hart 1978; Duke 1981). Fodder trees and shrubs to reduce the harmful effects of rising watertables. Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. Tolerant of frosts. Lefroy, E.C., Dann, P.R., Wildin, J.H., Wesley-Smith, R.N. They OAK TREES. An argument sometimes used for not planting trees for fodder is that the cost of seedlings is prohibitive. For instance, if one desires to grow a gum tree, there are close to a thousand species to choose from ranging from sub-alpine snow gums to spectacular flowering gums from Western Australia or rainbow gums that thrive in the wet jungles of northern Australia. This tree is a legume, but it is not known to fix nitrogen, although this is highly likely. named on the page is likely to fail, and the SRES webmaster doesn't want Sometimes it is because of good management and good luck. Trees need to be well spaced for best growth. The same people who see no value in planting saltbushes should remember the use made last century and in the first half of this century by graziers who depended on such trees and shrubs. Mulberries might well do a good job - and they're certainly fast-growing. The answer is not to eke out the most from every millimetre of rain, but to allow trees to tap the vast reserves of water deep below the surface. Propagation from cuttings or suckers. cited in Negi 1986). And; be fuel efficient, that is, they should require little input in the way of fossil fuels: as the trees, once established, are permanent features on the farm, there will be no need for annual ploughings of the soil, and no further requirements for machinery. Radcliffe, Crop Research Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch NZ. & Hart, R.A. 1975, Forest Farming; Towards a Solution to Problems of World Hunger and Conservation, Rodale Press, Emmaus Pa. Duke, J.A. popularity (every time we've removed it, people have complained within 24 By selecting desired size, foliage, and a few categories, Treefinder opens up a world of possibilities. providing an alternative source of income for graziers. most suited for the landowner and the local conditions. Tolerate wide variety of soils. grown in paddocks. Fast growing and long-lived. Steep slopes that are unsuited to ploughing will grow trees. All are also considered to be good timber trees, Angie Thomas, Horticulture Consultant to Yates, recommends planting these trees if you live in some of Australia's warmer climates. Saltbush: Atriplex nummularia: Able to survive conditions that prohibit the growth of most other plants, such as low rainfall, saline, and poor soils. And in Africa, trees have been used for centuries as a source of feed for animals. Much of Australia's grazing land is comprised of woodland where trees and native pastures coexist. Managing native fodder There are plenty of other faster growing options out there, but some oaks are fairly fast growing for their own rights. Trees and shrubs with potential should: Some of the species that fulfill these minimum requirements include: Willows: Salix spp, especially the weeping willow, Salix babylonica, and the hybrid Salix matsudana x alba. The foliage is high quality livestock feed. fodder may not be clinically apparent for a long time but intensive Valuable in soil stabilisation work (Duke 1981; Felker & Bandurski 1979). & Cannell, G.H. In Agroforestry Systems : a new challenge. In trials in Western Australia, in deep sand and with 530 mm rainfall, tagasaste planted at 900 trees per hectare produced three tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Seasonal dry conditions because of good management and good luck to one metre thick Cedar ( toona ciliata ) a! But trees should be well spaced sometimes higher in protein, they often have lower value. 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