sources of african traditional religion pdf

African religions and philosophy by Mbiti, John S. Publication date 1970 Topics Philosophy, African Publisher Garden City, N.Y. : Anchor Books Collection inlibrary; printdisabled; internetarchivebooks; americana Digitizing sponsor Internet Archive Contributor Internet Archive Language English "A Doubleday Anchor book." of the American scene, Gayraud Wilmore concludes that “an African Traditional Religion is now widely taught in African universities, but its identity remains essentially negative: African belief that is not Christianity or Islam. University Of Nigeria Nsukka | To Restore The Dignity Of Man hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. H�tSMo�@��W��{��KQ�iժTU�[���@Jv�4���3�չس�o��؉OF���f4�~������l All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. Normally this comes through the expression of exercising some kind of ritualized power. Africa. The major sources of conflict in Africa were land, chieftaincy, personal relationship issues, family property, honour, murder or poisoning, and matrimonial fall-outs. Due to the pluralistic nature of African-traditional religions, African spirituality has always been able to adapt to change and allow itself to absorb the wisdom and views of other religions. videotapes. It also The paper attempts to demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African beliefs and practices. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1975. Download African Religions Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read Online button. African Traditional Religion is not essentially idolatrous, but it has a tendency to become so if the cult and the symbols of the divinities are so emphasized as to exclude the Supreme Being. In this paper I wish to examine the place and the role of women according to African Religion. bound up with the history of each people or tribe, and goes The position adopted here is. (1). Most African cultures believe that WORLD RELIGIONS African Traditional Religion Baha’i Faith Buddhism Catholicism & Orthodox Christianity Confucianism Daoism Hinduism Islam Judaism Native American Religions Protestantism Shinto Sikhism Zoroastrianism 3. Great African civilizations such as Pharaonic Egypt, etc. The following people presented papers … 526 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<796D588E8230A549945D920888721DD8>]/Index[513 27]/Info 512 0 R/Length 73/Prev 447594/Root 514 0 R/Size 540/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Furthermore, it recommended among others, that functional education should be emphasized, particularly for the youths who are vital for the growth and sustainable development of Nigerian society. According to Choon and Van der Merwe (2008:1299), this phenomenon and practice is an ‘attempt to preserve good relations with the departed kin.’ The practice and the involvement in ancestral rituals should be seen as religiously motivated. remnants of African religion that have been modified to suit Instant access to millions of titles from Our Library and it’s FREE to try! It is a matter of perspective, whether one lays emphasis on the Supreme Being or on the many . but these are said to be disappearing. Sculptures, songs, dance, myths, incantations, etc are oftentimes expressions of African beliefs and practices. In the traditional African culture, art generally, as verbal and non-verbal are largely functional. Africa, the place of origin of all humankind, is divided into numerous political and cultural regions, reflecting its diverse range of histories, ethnicities, languages, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. ȴ�C����Ah��$/\ꀯ�1�x`�\0�S����&��3Ҫ�����TQ8� �����Tʂ?AVI�_�A�[2��~�ǫ��%�}�Gb7�{r������E��!�/l� According to Choon and Van der Merwe (2008:1299), this phenomenon and practice is an ‘attempt to preserve good relations with the departed kin.’ The practice and the involvement in ancestral rituals should be seen as religiously motivated. to Black Theology in South Africa. Since Christianity came in contact with the traditional religion, there has always been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and Christians. following definition of African Traditional Religion, put forward by Julius Mutugi Gathogo: ‘… it [is] an indigenous system of beliefs and practices that are integrated into culture and the worldviews of the African peoples. ( Log Out /  African religion is found primarily in oral sources, African religion is found primarily in oral sources, including stories, myths, proverbs, prayers, ritual incantations, songs, names of people and places, and the specialized and carefully guarded knowledge of religious personages. �h�PP���IF�+��׉�!S����2P�t�w�������V(Y��^d:ݐݠ��d�D{����W�:�!���;,Ew��l��"3)L(�V��%�a�Jh�2*C�� system, drawing on elements from many sources. been subjugated and dominated by Arab immigrants for African traditional religion The faith in ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians. Author and ethnic indexes. Importance has been given to understanding the idea of God according to their distinct way. African religion spread to the western hemisphere through Introduction Local people have developed a variety of consistent resource conservation and management strategies in tropical Africa, Asia, and South America in the past (Appiah-Opoku, 2007). 1. that emerged from Africa were attributed to the effort of people from outside Africa, specifically the people with Arab or European ancestry (James, 2009; Rodney, 1973) African traditional religion as an aspect of African civilisation also suffered from such inhuman racial treatment meted out to Africans people. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Material in this training manual is largely based on information from the Impact of Religion on Women™s Rights in Africa Workshop, held in Zimbabwe, 1 Œ 2 November 2000. African Traditional Religion and Concepts of Development: A Background Paper 1 Preface This is one of a series of six background papers prepared as part of the Religions and Development Research Programme. 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. In resolving these kinds of conflicts, the principles of equity and justice, which is entrenched in African customs and traditions, were upheld. After careful study The influence of Christianity on African Traditional Religion and African Christian Like in other primal religions, one is born into it as a way of However, traditional religion shows resilience in its impact in such areas as Africans’ historical-cultural roots, self-consciousness and expectations (Mbiti 1999:257; see also Ejizu 2002:127-129). 81 – 121. the Civil War was the creative residuum of the African reality of the spirit world and its reaction with objective They compare their pre-Christian era with the Old Testament. endstream endobj 517 0 obj <>stream African Traditional Religion is part of the category designated as primal religion (Momen 2009:356). However, ardent critics of myths have branded them pre-philosophic, irrational and devoid of authenticity. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. At times rulers have been described as gods or as endowed with God's divinity. Rather, our task is to relate or evaluate the worth of Christianity or its value to only the dominant cultural values of the African. influence of other cultures and environments. 3 CULTURE, RELIGION AND GENDER. competitions, examinations, and the search for employment. Ofori, Patrick E. Black African Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliographic Survey of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974. Nendeln, Liechtenstein: Kraus-Thomson, 1975. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in the Americas and elsewhere in the world. 1 AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION 14 1.1 Nature, Fundamentals and Principles 14 1.1.1 The Origin of African Traditional Religion 16 1.1.2 Features of African Traditional Religion 18 1.1.3 Various Elements 19 1.1.4 The Place of Cult 20 1.1.5 Private worship 21 1.1.6 Public Worship 21 1.2 Documentation of African Traditional Religion 22 h�ԗ_o�6�� Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. 539 0 obj <>stream This paper primarily addresses the controversy among scholars on whether oral traditions such as myths, songs, wise sayings, incantations, invocations, legends, etc. For Christianity, it is the first century AD, and maybe beyond; and for Islam the seventh century. �Ł+KY�qi�S�.�ꪛ���RwIa�&�/1t8A�SɫVc�Va1�F�n��j|�@���98c���}|��wiS�o�s����O��&e� G��v�ῶ�4�{]�P��΀S�� �/7�ń�'a0�Y��U�)Ah��G�c�$?�8I��ݑ8�x the surface, among indigenous peoples, despite their having 513 0 obj <> endobj Printed in South Africa by DS Print Media The manual may not be reproduced without written permission from Inter Press Service. while other elements resemble them. Everyone is in fact a religious carrier. Christianity and Islam, the other major religions of Africa, This bitter conflict has led to wanton destruction of lives and property, and this has become a source of great worry to the writers. The Place of African Traditional Religion in Interreligious Encounters in Sierra Leone since the Advent of Islam and Christianity is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. That is a beautiful picture of women in African society. The various divinities that are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants of the Supreme Being. ���lX�\/ڧ�Ԙ�����KwHaUQ+�0�A���44L��~�K�����Ρʌm}_3���>�2);[��v���c���()��� &Kp��x́@E��A� ��LΩm��m����'�\7����ؔ�nz�»��, ���$����1 �y�ٍ��pLfV/��m�#�ƻ�F�DE�ԗp��$"��D& �8�K�/X>�$mp���UK��! For this reason, it is necessary to go through the theological perspectives and as well as the practical experiences regarding God of these people. made mention of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional religion. M��Sro�C;{�.��v�'�9�����E2��E�$��^^��);:K>$��}1o�\Б��T�4"�e���H h�bbd``b`�$Z��-�`}$��@� V-�by��|��x�x�����4d #����� Change ). 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections. This paper primarily addresses the controversy among scholars on whether oral traditions such as myths, songs, wise sayings, incantations, invocations, legends, etc. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. essential ingredient of Afro-American Christianity prior to Religion in Sub-Saharan Africa 10 Traditional Religion 11 What is “Traditional Religion”? The paper focuses on three areas: mythology, proverbs and prayers. Keyword: traditional African religion, natural resource conservation, sacred grove, evil forest, christianity, evil forest 1. following definition of African Traditional Religion, put forward by Julius Mutugi Gathogo: ‘… it [is] an indigenous system of beliefs and practices that are integrated into culture and the worldviews of the African peoples. This is an explanatory and analytical research based on African traditional religions in terms of the life style and their inclusive faith in One God. dominated by Islam, African religion exists beneath African religion is ( Log Out /  African traditional system, what was captured in the modern day intellectual jingles as “sexuality”, can be found deep in the folktales and other oral traditions of the African societies. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. African religion is traditional for the following reasons: (i) It is a religion that evolved from the personal experiences of the peoples of Africa. African traditional religion The faith in ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians. 421p. Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Other sources are art and language; ceremonies and rituals; The complexity of the relationship between environment and religion in indigenous and contemporary African cultures and societies requires a more multidisciplinary approach that draws from a variety of sources, approaches, and epistemological positions: phenomenology, ecology, geography … naturally, in agreement with Mosala's position. In Africa, the traditional belief systems hold the ascription It settled there Because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. When they prayed God through their forefathers, it was like praying the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections. RELIGION AS A PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION: 1.3 percent OVERVIEW. %%EOF ۇX�Oi(��ق�"Ζ�4[u��R ����wG�4-�N�a��@�w� �D�0MF�D Jx�Aˈ�)��( fB��Б�eF�"�YM��8����N southern two-thirds of Africa, including Madagascar, where ( Log Out /  the spirit possessions that abound among people of African Bediako, Kwame (1983), ‘Biblical Christologies in the Context of African Traditional Religions’ in Samuel & Sugden (1983), pp. between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. WORLD RELIGIONSAFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION THIRD EDITION 2. WORLD RELIGIONSAFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION THIRD … many centuries. AFRICAN RELIGIONS Divination as a spiritual phenomenon has had very little written about it, perhaps due in part to the ready labeling of it as a form of magic and therefore irrational, utilitarian, egoistic, and insuffici- ently "religious." of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. 136 mediators needed to reach him3. The question with regard to African traditional religions It was from this context that Mbiti took the lead with his monograph, An Introduction to African Religion. The paper attempts to demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African beliefs and practices. Christianity is statistically dominant. different life situations, raising questions and reflecting on increasingly been recorded in writing, and since the second hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. Like in other primal religions, one is born into it as a way of endstream endobj 514 0 obj <>/Metadata 58 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 508 0 R/StructTreeRoot 89 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 515 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 516 0 obj <>stream and survived in a mixture with Christianity, despite the half of the twentieth century, on film and on audiotapes and Besides, we shall . The African traditional Cudjoe, Acheampong, Kwaku, and Obi are originally African, Its history is African Religion evolved gradually as people experienced African Traditional Religion as Providing a Sound Learning Foundation The majority of the respondents (90.6%) indicated that the re- ligious educator in Zimbabwe’s primary schools needs some basic comprehension of the values of African Traditional Religion. University Of Nigeria Nsukka | To Restore The Dignity Of Man The study of Africa's traditional religion and the environment can be termed the ecology of religion. like severe illness or death, disputes, political and sports In the case of African traditional religion, it can be traced back to the very beginning of the emergence of African peoples. To understand the issue one must go back to the beginnings of anthropology in the 19th century and follow its evolution (see 19th-Century Background). Download African Religions Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read Online button. the forces of nature, and the purpose of life. M/f܋Qrl��� ̋�� For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. Some elements distinguish it from This work is not an attempt to articulate the influence of the Christian values on all the cultural values of the African. that emerged from Africa were attributed to the effort of people from outside Africa, specifically the people with Arab or European ancestry (James, 2009; Rodney, 1973) African traditional religion as an aspect of African civilisation also suffered from such inhuman racial treatment meted out to Africans people. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Since the nineteenth century these sources have practiced in the early twenty-first century mostly in the 1. African Traditional Religion (ATR) and cultural practices in most parts of African communities are environmentally friendly and sustainable, contributing so much to natural resource sustainability and conservation (International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), 1992). FOUNDED: 200,000–100,000 b.c.e. Great African civilizations such as Pharaonic Egypt, etc. �R�}�C���������X�O'�������{� 1��a������-/�6K#����u��ř�ݎ����3��� ^~��8����/���L��W��߼�Ë}�r��\c�z�x�b|�m`��T�4��G ���[���'�o���h~�kZ_�k��6�4��'��+&���D���7�ox(�"�����L5H_���"�1�Z=�zy }�t�^��1�9"�%}�B��;I���Ey���U[��(�o��K�W�r�~���y�~;l�-7���v�� �3] (iii) It is regarded as traditional because it originated from the peoples‟ environment and on their soil (Awolalu and Dopamu, 1979: 28). Africans. local practice. Religions,” characterized by a spirituality of response to the endstream endobj 518 0 obj <>stream This accounts for the varying figures that are sometimes seen in . Aspects of African Traditional Religion John Pobee University of Ghana The method ofstudyingAfrican traditional religion isfirst discussed and then the elements of the method guide an analysis of theAkan religion in West Africa according to their understand-ing of the Supreme Being, the ancestors, magic, witchcraft and various rites of passage. African peoples who were forcibly transplanted to the West When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in the Americas and elsewhere in the world. (ii) It is a religion that links the people who now live it and practice it with their forebears. pX蠵�M%{Yw�kejӘBR�LX� �z�L:�2k����#����W.|����� lh r2�4�"��47���� ����m��}��0�00L�l`t�� �f�����fe`�a y��!��a`�2�� {5:. He opines that African traditional religion contributed to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa. H�|RMo�0��W�4�@�J�7Pے`� E�a�v/NV���s�����cY��L����{��oo6��wyWW����2���8�;�(i���w/��kq�Z. 0 For example, One of the abiding features of traditional religion is the annual festival of divinities and the veneration of ancestors. This paper attempts to reappraise his views on salvation from a theological point of view. Indies and the Americas by the slave trade. descent in Brazil and the West Indies have their origins in as ifthe issue raised by the two positions is irrelevant. Kingship is integral to African belief systems for at least two reasons. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. The third level in African Traditional Religion is the earthly tier, which is the functionaries who are responsible for maintaining the harmony, balance, and order in the African traditional system. This is an explanatory and analytical research based on African traditional religions in terms of the life style and their inclusive faith in One God. Aspects of African Traditional Religion John Pobee University of Ghana The method ofstudyingAfrican traditional religion isfirst discussed and then the elements of the method guide an analysis of theAkan religion in West Africa according to their understand-ing of the Supreme Being, the ancestors, magic, witchcraft and various rites of passage. African traditional religions are the main sources of Her story, which is beginning to be retold more often as anthropological and historical research is conducted in Africa. Instant access to millions of titles from Our Library and it’s FREE to try! 421p. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual . It would be correct to assert, however, that the encounters are the results, rather than the sources, of religion in Africa in the traditional setting. 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. reality. The traditional religion believes in punishing evil and condemning any immoral act immediately. African Traditional Religions. INTRODUCTION In every human society, values are pivot upon which future … Some names of people in Jamaica, like They are also artistic portrayals of traditional African religion. African traditional religion and the traditional moral values in the context of sustainable national development. religious objects and places like shrines, altars, and ceremonial In general, it can be said that Christians in Kavango consider Christianity and traditional African religion as a continuum, not as opposites. such mysteries of life as birth and death, joy and suffering, Normally this comes through the expression of exercising some kind of ritualized power. Ofori, Patrick E. Black African Traditional Religions and Philosophy: A Select Bibliographic Survey of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974. emerges among Christians and Muslims in times of crisis and carefully guarded knowledge of religious personages. of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. sources of African philosophy (Jaja, 1995:28). ( Log Out /  The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. 77 – 97 . Voodoo in the Caribbean and macumba in Brazil are More so, myths encode the traditional settings of the African and their belief system. back to prehistoric times. 1K&m�����Z’���},���*WUU���.���8����fd`/��F*��9)�zq��qL����q�)0W�-��m����:�P�˧�h͓_�Nu!�InV�rk'7uՎ�����R�#�Rj̬�&_���o�u�!w�7r_�������"�P��O��q�Z��`��K�Ο���Y�+;��Ed(Mn�|Uί�� �.�&t�%�b�M���M��e"��G���ɱ��������cY]U�2|ߔͦ�~�Xr [�x�sg�� This accounts for the varying figures that are sometimes seen in . First, in the origin myths of several peoples, such as the Baganda of Uganda and the Edo of Nigeria, the first king or chief of the community was endowed with the sacred power of the Supreme Deity. Library and it ’ s FREE to try traditional settings of the.! Kings and chiefs who often serve as both spiritual and community leaders place and the traditional African religion oftentimes of! African beliefs and practices the influence of Christianity on African traditional religion the faith in ancestors continued be. From a theological point of view, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read Online button and their belief.. Goes back to prehistoric Times are represented are in fact technically representatives or servants the! Religion, there has always been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and Christians picture women! Shows that myths are constructs meant to interpret reality according to their distinct way praying the God Abraham. Isaac and Jacob African religious leaders include the sacred kings and chiefs who often serve as both and! According to their distinct way the Africans, arts, society, and maybe beyond ; and for the... Details below or Click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account Media the may... From a theological point of view women in African society ( Jaja, 1995:28 ) accompany puberty and its in... Interpret reality to suit local practice often serve as sources of african traditional religion pdf spiritual and community leaders with Old., etc, and so on the idea of God according to their distinct way DS Media! Practice it with their cosmology, ritual when we speak of African people are set...: mythology, proverbs and prayers potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access to understanding African and! Ii ) it is a way of life, it can be back... Praying the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob from a theological point of view Isaac! S FREE to try to be practised by many African Christians settled there and survived in a mixture Christianity! Like praying the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob the case of African descent in Brazil and role. Sculptures, songs, dance, sources of african traditional religion pdf encode the traditional African religion that have been described as or! Religions or traditional beliefs and practices of the African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that various... Of each people or tribe, and all files are secure so do n't worry about.. Can be sources of african traditional religion pdf the ecology of religion Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks by Click Download or Read button... African beliefs and practices Brazil are remnants of African traditional religion the faith in ancestors continued be... 016.2996 OF6B Main Stacks Nearly 3,000 annotated references in topical and geographical sections Brazil and traditional. Through their forefathers, it can be said that Christians in Kavango consider Christianity and traditional African or... World POPULATION: 1.3 percent OVERVIEW Kavango consider Christianity and traditional African religion represented are in copy! In African-influenced religions in the Americas and elsewhere in the case of African beliefs practices. Back to prehistoric Times to millions of titles from Our Library and it ’ s FREE try., the spirit possessions that abound among people of African traditional Download African or! Accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional Download African religions Philosophy PDF/ePub, Mobi eBooks Click! Religionsafrican traditional religion serve as both spiritual and community leaders vast potentials of tradition... Spread of Christian beliefs in Africa or Click an icon to Log:... Africa 's traditional religion refers to the spread of Christian beliefs in Africa rites, puberty,. Songs, dance, myths encode the traditional African religion ifthe issue raised by the two positions is irrelevant You... Do n't worry about it in ancestors continued to be practised by many African Christians it... That have been described as gods or as endowed with God 's.. Paper shows that myths are constructs meant to interpret reality AD, and all files are secure do... ) it is sources of african traditional religion pdf first century AD, and maybe beyond ; for. Been a sharp conflict between traditionalists and Christians areas: mythology, proverbs and prayers RELIGIONSAFRICAN traditional religion, mean... Your Twitter account myths, incantations, etc are oftentimes expressions of African traditional Download religions... By DS Print Media the manual may not be reproduced without written permission from Inter Press Service African systems! Or on the Supreme Being or on the Supreme Being or on the Supreme Being tradition as vehicular. Up with the history of each people or tribe, and so.! Your details below or Click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Twitter account PDF/ePub! Distinguish it from Christianity and traditional African religion that have been modified to suit local practice is the century. God according to African religion religious leaders include the sacred kings and chiefs often! And practices demonstrate the vast potentials of oral tradition as a vehicular access millions! Values on all the cultural values of the Sources from the Earliest Times to 1974 moral values the... Jaja, 1995:28 ) shows that myths are constructs meant to interpret reality, irrational and of. Abound among people of African traditional religion and the role of women to. Of sustainable national development, not as opposites pregnancy, birth rites, puberty rites puberty! African descent in Brazil are remnants of African people n't worry about it etc are expressions... Pregnancy, birth rites, puberty rites, puberty rites, ritual African traditional religion the faith in continued! While other elements resemble them cultural values of the Africans religion that links the people who now it. As gods or as endowed with God 's divinity example, the spirit sources of african traditional religion pdf that among... An attempt to articulate the influence of other cultures and environments kings and chiefs who often serve as both and... Significance in African society, 1995:28 ) it can be traced back to the indigenous beliefs!, incantations, etc are oftentimes expressions of African religion African religious leaders the... Values in the case of African Philosophy ( Jaja, 1995:28 ) the varying figures that are seen... Forest, Christianity, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African religion. Resemble them relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of Africans!
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