B. Minoan culture was influenced by the Mycenaeans. Yet their influence was remembered in the Homeric poems that have lasted for ages. This was a tradition that migrated to Greece in the form of religious festivals in honor of their heroes. Mycenaean culture included elaborate burial practices, but only for the wealthy aristocracy. Around 1200 BC, we have evidence that the Mycenaeans increased the size of the walls around their cities. About a millennium before the Common Era, the Mycenaean culture grew weak and was conquered by invaders from the north known as Dorians. Classical scholars know about the orientalising periods in Greek art; and Near Eastern specialists are familiar with Minoan, Mycenaean, Hellenistic and still later Greek influence in Western Asia and Egypt. This equality of females and males in society makes the Minoans unique among ancient civilizations. However, Egypt’s conservatism can serve as a link between the evolution and cultural diffusion of its great empire — to the rising age of the Greeks. Trade with great powers had ancillary effect. Life on Crete From the Egyptians the Cretans probably learned writing, which originally took the form of hieroglyphics and later became a more phonetic form, which is referred to today as Linear A. The second millennium BCE witnessed two extraordinary cultures that were the precursors of Greek civilization. Scholars believe that most of the thousands of documents uncovered (often in the form of clay tablets in the manner of the Mesopotamians) were records of economic transactions. The Dorians. The megaron form would become a standard element of later Greek temples. Known as . The interconnections antedate not only the earliest Hebrew and Greek writings, but also the earliest texts of Sumer and Egypt. From childhood, Schliemann was fascinated by the Trojan War, and he dedicated his life to proving that the Greek legendary war was more than a myth. There is much debate about the role of females in Minoan culture. The collapse of Mycenae around 1200 was the end of the age of Greek legend. The Mycenaeans were influenced by the Minoan civilization from the island of Crete who were, in turn, influenced by the Egyptians and Mesopotamians. It began as an imitation of Egyptian culture. The Greek City-States (polis) would emerge from the groundwork laid during the Heroic Age and the influence of non-European nations on Greece. For example, he cites the Greek legend that Daedalus, the builder of the Knossan labyrinth modeled his structure on the then famous labyrinth of Amememhet III of the 12th Dynasty. The word Ethiopian is the combination of two Greek words burnt and skin and thus does not only refer to a specific nation but rather to an ethnic or racial group located in other lands. The Mycenaeans lived on the island of Crete after they took it over from the Minoans, … They built citadels and fortresses centered on the city of Mycenae on the Peloponesian Peninsula. It is believed by most historians that the Trojans were not Greeks, but vassals of the Hittites to the east of modern-day Turkey. Something was threatening the civilization. Therefore little time or treasure was spent in fortification. The Hyksos were expelled from Egypt in 1546 at the start of the New Kingdom. a cataclysmic volcanic explosion occurred on the island of Strongphyle (Thera) north of Crete. This does not, however, exclude direct cultural diffusion as Mycenaean artifacts were discovered in Egypt by Sir Flinders Petrie (1853–1942). C. Mycenaean culture was influenced by the Minoans. Their craftsmen became experts in jewelry and pottery. The profundity of documents and the intricacy of palace complexes indicates that the government probably had a strong bureaucratic component. Minoan and Mycenaean cultures ultimately became part of the oral tradition of the pre-Archaic Greeks. The Mycenaeans were the ancestors of the Greeks of the Classical period. the mycenaeans were influenced my the minoans culture because the mycenaeans built palaces on hilltops, just like the minoans did. According to Egyptian myth, he was the first pharaoh. He was fascinated by clay tablets with deciphered script and he began to excavate Knossos located in central Crete. … Even the burial sites indicate a relatively egalitarian society. Now it is important to note that Minos is the son of Zeus begotten in Crete by Princess Europa. The Mycenaeans had a syllabic script we now call Linear B because there is evidence that it developed from Minoan writing. The Minoans, who were known particularly for their extensive trade and dominance of the sea, existed from about 27th century B.C. During the Minoan Civilization ‘tholos tombs’ were built and a series of them were excavated at Knossos in the 1960’s. Minoans had a great influence on the Greek mainland as well the island of the Aegean during the Second Palace Period. For example, the frescos found on Crete show the importance of cult games in Minoan life. Toward the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt’s influence and interest in the Levant waned, which created a vacuum of power in the region. Iliad 1.423–4 (Thetis is speaking to Achilles.). However, this time also corresponds with the rise of the sea people some of which were the Philistines mentioned in the Bible from which the name Palestine emerged. The Minoans did not speak Greek but had extensive contact with Egypt and the Near East, particularly the Phoenicians who were also maritime people, and they passed this culture to the Mycenaeans. Their activities and raiding were wide ranging. Sea traders- passed on Minoan, egyptian, and Mesopotamian influences. until the Mycenaeans defeated them and took over (Biers, 1980, 27). Many historians interpret the phrase in the Bible: “Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8): as the end of the Hyksos domination and the rise of the New Kingdom under Ahmose I. The devastation must have laid waste to much of the Minoan merchant marine, because it was not long after that the Mycenaeans invaded Crete. In Greek myth, the primogenitor was Hellen the man who should not be confused with the female Helen of Troy (The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships) and she was the cause of the Trojan War. The Greeks celebrated this age in the poems of Homer and in the oral tradition prevalent before the Greeks learned how to read and write from the Phoenicians. Of all the societies of the ancient world, the Minoans were probably the most affluent. According to (Exodus 12:41) the Israelites were slaves in Egypt for 430 years. These were Greeks from the mainland that occupied Crete for three generations and during that time absorbed, as the Romans would do later: the knowledge of a greater civilization now in decline. What is known about Linear A is due to a comparison with a later script called Linear B which was used after the Mycenaean invasion and referred to a language more easily deciphered that was similar to Greek. In the top painting below, those on the right are Egyptians, and on the left foreigners entering into Egypt: a consistent theme of the Intermediate Periods. It is also interesting to note, that the collapse of the Mycenaean culture corresponds to an overall decline in the eastern Mediterranean and the first mention of the state of Israel. Mycenaean palaces, on the other hand, were constructed with high stone walls and other clearly defensive attributes, signifying the perennial presence of danger. Some Cretans took their skills and their burgeoning culture with them to neighboring islands, and would eventually export their way of life to mainland Europe in Greece. The Archaic period, however, was an era of transformation; and the Greeks of that period looked back to the Mycenaean era (between 1600–1200 BCE) for their history and legends. Thanks to the work of Evans and others, we now know that the Minoans were the predecessors of the Mycenaeans, and we can date their civilization to approximately 1450 BCE. Moreover, it was a practice of the Egyptians to raise the son of the king of their vassals in Egypt, thus, molding its future leaders in the image of the Egyptians. Additionally, while the Mycenaeans were discovered to have had a wide variety of weaponry suitable to battle, Minoan weapons were cerem… It seems to have been created simply for the sake of pleasure and adding beauty to a home or palace. The Cretan culture was called Minoan from the legendary king of Crete Minos and the Mycenaean culture earned its name from the town of Mycenae in the Peloponnese. Even so, it is thought that the government was run more as a huge corporation than as the hereditary possession of a few families. Although there is no Egyptian historical record of Jewish slaves in Egypt, the biblical narrative could reflect the suppression of the Hyksos in Egypt and their presence in the Levant. However, Western Civilization did not originate in Western Europe, but instead, in the eastern part of the continent and stands on the shoulders of older civilizations in Africa and the Middle East. There is no doubt that Greece is the cornerstone of the Western world and there is also no doubt that the Greek accomplishments were significant. to 14th century B.C. Some scholars believe that Israel was able to establish a temporary state because of the chaos and the weakness of its surrounding neighbors. An example from the Iliad states: “Only yesterday Zeus went off to the Ocean Riverto feast with the Aethiopians, loyal, lordly men, and all of the gods went with him.”. However, to the Greeks and later the Romans, the Trojan War was real history of a Heroic age. The Greek ruler Themistocles knee it was a temporary victory he then started to build up the Greek navy. For the next several hundred years, Greece fell into a period called the Greek Dark Age. Pictures were of such things as animals, people in daily life or in sporting events. Recently, much has been made about the tradition and influence of Western Civilization on the world. A tidal wave was launched that destroyed much of the northern coast of Crete that may have included the governing structure at Knossos. Even so, the island is situated fairly close to Egypt, and their trading activities certainly would have exposed them to Egyptian culture. Which sentences describes a cycle of dependency? Historians and scholars have often pondered if the legends delineated in Homer’s two epic poems were myth masqueraded as history or true events. There has been a tendency to draw a distinct line between the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures, from which the Greek culture originated, and Ancient Egypt. The religious element is difficult to identify in Mycenaean civilization, especially as regards archaeological sites, where it remains problematic to pick out a place of worship with certainty. Now there are not less than 200 years between Minos I and Minos II, which infers a dynasty not a single ruler. Whatever the reason, the Mycenaean civilization collapsed around 1100 BC. Before the rise of Mycenaean civilization in mainland Greece, Minoan civilization flourished on the large island of Crete. Moreover, according to Greek myths, the founders of Mycenae were the progeny of Princess Andromeda who was the daughter of an Ethiopian king. In other words, he is the son of god just as all Egyptian pharaohs were the embodiment of the son of god. They may have seen something of civilization before landing on Crete. Much of what we know about the Minoans could be attributed to the hard work and diligence of one man, Sir Arthur Evans (1851–1941). Furthermore, the Greeks associated papyrus paper and rope made from the stem of papyrus with the Phoenician city that was a port. They imitated the Minoans, especially in their trading activities. The classical Greeks were known throughout the world, and today, just as much for their merchant and trade activities as they were for their martial abilities. They built large trade ships and traveled to places like Egypt where they traded goods like olive oil and wine for metals and ivory. It is also important to note that during the Mycenaean period, the Phoenicians were under the Egyptian sphere of influence which gave them access to Egyptian expertise and products that they modified to make goods of which the Greeks emulated. Genetically, linguistically and religiously they were the same people, and while genetically and religiously there wasn't an actual difference between them, there was an linguistic evolution through time. The land was fertile and well-watered. However, it is known that the Mycenaeans conquered or displaced the Minoan empire by the 15th century B.C., borrowing or adapting much of Minoan culture as its own. The mountains of Greece also acted as barriers to separate different areas. In this regard, they were conduits of culture and knowledge of the Egyptians and Near East providing indirect cultural diffusion to the Mycenaeans. In Egyptian mythology, the holy bull, Apis, was linked with Osiris. When the Cretan places were destroyed around 1450 BCE, only the one at Knossos was rebuilt. Furthermore, Herodotus wrote in his history centuries later: “The Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris (Senusret). Answers: 2 Get Other questions on the subject: Social Studies. There were other Mycenaean cities that grew into major city-states during the height of Ancient Greece such as Thebes and Athens. Ancient Egypt also had mystery plays that outdated the Minoan plays. However, such accomplishments should not be viewed in isolation nor should we view the Greeks as a race of geniuses without any reference to those antecedent civilizations that laid the foundation for Greece. The Cretan form of government is not known, but it was probably kingship. The Mycenaeans developed trade throughout the Mediterranean. Because the language is so unfamiliar, Linear A has proved to be difficult to translate. The pyramids and sphinx of Egypt were over 1000 years old and Egypt was in its 18th dynasty. A. the spread of Greek ideas around the ancient world B. the creation of a new empire C. the division of the empire among his generals D. Macedonian Originating in the late Mycenaean period, the Greek epic outlasted the downfall of the typically heroic-age culture (c. 1100 bce) and maintained itself through the “Dark Age” to reach a climax in the Homeric poems by the close of the Geometric period (900–750 bce). Located on the island of Create, Mycenae was a major centre of culture, military power and trade from around 1600 to 1100 BC. In 480 BC Darius's son Xerxes sent a larger force of 20,000 soldiers and nearly 1000 ships. The Mycenaeans were influenced by the earlier Minoan … And maybe this was the biggest influence of the mycenean civilization to later greek culture. World History. Besides, princesses from other lands were also sent to Egypt and it is important to note that the Egyptians did not export their princesses to foreign lands. Many historians associate Hyksos with the Jews in Egypt at the time of Joseph and the Exodus. However, in reviewing the history of Greece, we find another cord that freed them from their maze of ignorance and brought civilization to Europe. On the island of Crete between 2000 and 1700 B.C. It is most apparent that Greek myths represent distorted memories of the Greek Mycenaean era. During this decline, Israel produced three great kings, Saul, David and Solomon. Geography & Early Culture. Minoan culture became a powerful force in the region. Its name derives from Minos, either a dynastic title or the name of a particular ruler of Crete who has a place in Greek legend. The city of Byblos (which traded cedar for paper) was closely linked to papyrus, so much so that when the writings of the Hebrew prophets were translated into Greek, the city’s name, Byblos, was given to the Bible. Since the Egyptians have never been maritime people, they relied on vassals such as the Phoenicians to be the conduit of their goods to what they viewed as the frontier. The greatness of David and Solomon may have been attributed to the incorporation of ideas that they inherited from the Philistines, who in turn inherited some of them from the Canaanites. Horus was the son of the god Osiris. Some theories link the King of Crete Minos to Menes (sometimes referred to as Narmer) the first Pharaoh of Egypt. The creation of colonies, because of the mountains, led to the spread of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The navy itself became the walls of the nation. It stretched from Ethiopia to the Levant. Thus, they became a mercantile people. Destruction. Mycenaean tholos tombs have been found on mainland Greece as well as on Crete. Describe three aspects of Mycenaean civilization that influenced later Greek culture. By about 1580 BCE Minoan civilization began to spread across the Aegean. Furthermore, Diodorus Siculus claims that the Minotaur lived in the labyrinthos, a term which he also applies to an Egyptian tomb which he claims Daidalos saw in Egypt and imitated in Crete for Minos. Social Studies, 22.06.2019 15:30, kezin. The deep influence of the Minoans on the Mycenaean culture is now clear. This Minoan tradition can also be found in Mycenaean Greece in the mystery plays and festivals. However, about 1500 B.C. A cursory investigation into the origins of Greek culture will trace its steps back to a much earlier non-Greek culture. His breakthrough was helpful in the dating of the Mycenaean culture. The Mesara type of tholos is peculiar since it links to the Mycenaean tholos as they both contain a ‘dromos’. Between 1900 BCE and 1500 BCE, Crete was the western-most segment of the European Bronze Age world and was connected to the entire eastern Mediterranean. Yet the people out-grew the limited resources of their island; to maintain their standard of living they had to reach out. Since the Egyptians did not use vowels Minos and Menes are structurally the same. Nestor, Achilles, Ajax, Agamemnon, Ulusses, Jason, Hercules, Aineias and so many other heroes and kings belong to that period of greek pre-history that … He was a wealthy British archeologist who restored much of the palace complex he dug up at a site called Knossos. This is different than art in Egypt or Mesopotamia where rulers were set on memorializing themselves through art and statuary, and priests of depicting gods and ceremonies. a. aid harms the local economy creating the need for more aid. They were the Dorians, the Aeolians, the Achaeans and the Ionians. Some of the legends, particularly the ones told by Hesiod, resemble the stories previously told by the Phoenicians. The myth of the labyrinth on Crete, from which the Greeks trace their roots may lay in the legends of the great labyrinth of pharaoh Amenemhat III of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. It's my opinion that the Myceanean culture, that was created on the ashes of the volcanic eruption that destroyed, not only Thera, but the Minoan Crete and the Egyptian cities, was influenced by the culture that existed on the Greek island, today's Santorini, which, I believe, it was the culture that influenced the Minoan, the Egyptian, and Plato's imagination! It is not known from where the Minoans first came to settle on the Island of Crete. It was natural, like other subsequent island nations, that they should become heavily engaged in trade overseas. Minoan civilization was first unearthed by Sir Arthur Evans in the early 1900s. Legends such as those mentioned by Homer and Hesiod and possibly of Theseus on the island of Crete. Edward’s name and assumptions were based on the trail of the Mycenaeans to the Minoans and their myths. One significant difference between the Egyptian drama and Greek theater is that the Egyptians concentrated on the life of the god, and Greeks on the life of the hero. However, they were powerful in their own right and masters of the sea. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15165017, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4390535, The Princess Who Married the World’s Richest Boy, Spirit Scripts: Japan’s mysterious outcast alphabets, The Englishwoman Who Joined a Harem (sort of): Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s The Turkish Letters…, The Fascinating World of the Amazon Warrior Women. Palaces were filled with hundreds of rooms. Most historians presume that they made their way from Asia Minor. Many of their architectural styles were actually products of the Mycenaean civilization, who were the earliest Greek-speaking people. Just as geography was a deciding factor in the rise of the Minoans, it would also play a decisive and dramatic role in their downfall. Furthermore, the noted archeologist, Eduard Meyer, while excavating tombs in Thebes (Waset) in Upper Egypt, came upon paintings amazingly like those in the palace of Knossos. References to the people as a group have been found in Egyptian documents especially regarding trade, but nothing regarding specific leaders. They took over the government and imposed some of their own forms, which were far more militaristic than the old Minoans. The Middle Kingdom was founded by Mentuhotep II and reigned from around (2050–1710) and was the most dominant nation in the region. During this time, the Phoenicians represented Egyptian power in the Levant. This is mainly because of the difficulty in translating Minoan texts, but may also stem from a relative equality among individuals and classes that may have discouraged monuments to specific great figures. According to the Greeks, the original inhabitants of Greece were the Achaeans and the Ionians, who fought in the Trojan War. Trojan Wars. The Dorians. When the Minoan culture disappeared in about 1600 B.C.E., for reasons archeologists still have yet to discover, the Mycenaean culture began to flourish on mainland Greece and invaded Crete, where they encountered the Minoans. Isis was the mother of Horus, the pharaoh of Egypt and likewise, Europa (from which Europe derives its name) was the mother of King Minos. Also recorded are noble warriors such as Memnon, the Ethiopian king, who was memorialized in art and poem. Answer: Minoan cultures influenced Mycenaean culture. The remains of Minoan culture influenced the Mycenaeans who adopted many of their clothing styles. How did the minoans and the mycenaeans influenced the ancient greeks civilization. There are definite sources of influence on early Greek culture to be found in the history of the second millennium, for which we have significant archaeological evidence and even some written documents. Because no written and decipherable historical records of Minoan interactions with the coastal Greeks or Mycenaeans were kept, it's difficult to identify precise influences between the cultures. Minoan palaces, for example, had open designs and lavish courtyards. Yet the Mycenaeans went one … The Iliad and the Odyssey, however, are only two parts of an eight-part known as “the Epic Cycle” of the Trojan War that emanates from a much older oral tradition. Minoan culture became a powerful force in the region. Both Minoan and Mycenaean primogenitors are princesses from foreign nations. “To Troy no hero came of nobler line; Or if of nobler, Memnon it was thine.” [Odyssey Book XI] So much so that centuries later, the twin statues of pharaoh Amenhotep III located in Egypt were named the Colossus of Memnon by the Greeks. They traded with other non-Greek peoples throughout the Mediterranean, much like their Mycenaean ancestors did hundreds of years prior. The story of civilization is the story of humankind; Western Civilization, although sometimes used as a euphemism for European superiority, is just one piece of this evolving story. A tradition that dates to the Old Kingdom. The Mycenaean Civilization: Bronze Age Greece. Now going back to Mycenaean burial, through the rich finds found in the shaft graves, … After this time, there was a resurgence of an independent Phoenician state that established colonies all over the Mediterranean. 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